Monument Type: Monastery

The Hermitage consists of three separate terraces, labelled Garden/Dwelling Terrace, Oratory Terrace and Outer Terrace. The Garden/Dwelling and Oratory Terraces are located near each other, on the two best natural ledges of the peak. Their spatial proximity is reinforced by the construction of two routes between them, suggesting that they had an important functional relationship. The Outer Terrace, in contrast, is set very much apart from the other terraces and is also the most difficult to reach.

The Garden/Dwelling Terrace - This kidney-shaped terrace is 13m long and varies in width from 2m to 4m. The long axis of the terrace runs roughly from north-west to south-east. The retaining wall, 1.5m high at the north-western end of the platform, is built on firm bedrock and is in impeccable condition. Much of the remaining terrace has collapsed, the current ground level now being below the original level. It is possible that a small dwelling cell may have existed here.

The Oratory Terrace - The second and most important of the three eremitic stations of the South Peak, the Oratory Terrace, lies at right-angles to the Garden/Dwelling Terrace and 4m above it. The main structure is that of a corbelled oratory with a narrow entry midway in the east wall. Internally it is approximately 2.3m x 2m. Against the east wall are the remains of an altar. Two small, interconnected basins are located beside the church. These hold water — a vital resource for a hermit in this inhospitable place. The monks had cut channels into the near vertical, exposed rock faces above this terrace to channel the rainwater down into the basins below. To the east of the Oratory Terrace is a long, narrow,tapering terrace upon which are the possible remains of a shrine.

Access to the Hermitage - The climb to the Hermitage starts at Christ’s Saddle and follows rock-cut steps and handholds to the Lower Traverse, below the Needle’s Eye. The monks cut almost vertical rock-cut steps up through a cleft in the rock and at this point this is known as the Needle’s Eye. Above this is a contemplation or prayer station. A further steep climb leads up to the first of three terraces. At a point halfway up this climb is a separate, more basic route, which leads right up to the summit. The rock-cut steps near the top of this route run under the Upper Traverse, evidence that this was the original route used by the monks to get to the summit prior to the construction of the Hermitage.

The Upper Traverse - This is located above the Oratory Terrace and leads across to the final rock-cut climb to the summit and the Outer Terrace. It was originally paved and had a parapet wall.

SKELLIG MICHAEL, CO. KERRY: THE MONASTERY AND SOUTH PEAK, Archaeological stratigraphic report: excavations 1986–2010 Edward Bourke, Alan R. Hayden, Ann Lynch


External perspective view 1 of Hermitage, Skellig Michael External perspective view 2 of Hermitage, Skellig Michael External perspective view 3 of Hermitage, Skellig Michael Plan view of Hermitage, Skellig Michael Front view of Hermitage, Skellig Michael Side view 1 of Hermitage, Skellig Michael Side view 2 of Hermitage, Skellig Michael Rear view of Hermitage, Skellig Michael


3D Model


Technical Details

3D Capture Method 1: Aerial Lidar

3D Capture Description: FLI-MAP 400; an aerial LiDAR survey system, was initially designed to survey infrastructural assets such as roads, railways and electricity supply networks. The sensor system mounted beneath the main helicopter fuselage consists of: 

  • Three 150 kHz LiDAR sensors (7◦ forward, nadir and 7◦ aft);
  • Scanning angle 60◦
  • Accuracy (relative) Horizontal 5 cm, Vertical 3 cm
  • Multiple returns 4
  • Two RTK GPS receivers – provide accurate location in used in conjunction with RTK base stations;
  • Inertial Navigation System (INS)- continuously track the position, orientation, and velocity of the helicopter;
  • Digital imaging (11 megapixel) and digital video capture.

Resulting data sets include first return (DSM) and last return point (DTM, bare earth) models

Data Processing Software: ArcGIS & Geomagic Studio



3D Capture Method 2: Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS)

3D Capture Description: Phase based terrestrial laser scanning using a Faro Focus 120 laser scanner. The instrument quotes the following specification:

  • Distance accuracy up to ±2mm.
  • Range from 0.6m up to 120m.
  • Measurement rate up to 976,000 points/sec.
  • Intensity & RGB. Integrated colour camera.
  • Photorealistic 3D colour scans with up to 70 megapixels.
  • Parallax-free colour overlay.

Laser scans geo-referenced using RTK GPS with VRSnow corrections

Data Processing Software

Processing of point cloud data: Faro Scene & Pointools

Meshing of data: Geomagic Studio 2012

3D Modelling & Texturing: Autodesk Mudbox, Mari, 3D Studio Max


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DIscovery Programme Logo White Landscape IRISH




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Arts Heritage and the Gaeltacht